Table 2

DNA primer pairs used for PCR. Modified primer sequences (ZF2 and HC) are indicated, with variations in degenerated bases marked in bold. Primer pairs were designed for amplifying specific regions, including mt COI (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene), 12S mt RNA (mitochondrial 12S RNA gene), and cp tnrL intron (P6 loop of the tnrL intron chloroplast DNA), Annealing temperature (°C) is also provided. n.a. : not applicable.

Primer name Target taxa Target gene Primer version Primer type Primer sequence (5'-3') Annealing temperature Reference
MiBird-U-F Birds mt 12S rRNA Original Forward GGGTTGGTAAATCTTGTGCCAGC 50 °C Ushio et al. (2018)
MiBird-U-R Birds mt 12S rRNA Original Reverse CATAGTGGGGTATCTAATCCCAGTTTG 50 °C Ushio et al. (2018)
ZBJ-ArtF1C Arthropods mt COI Original Forward AGATATTGGAACWTTATATTTTATTTTTGG n.a. Zeale et al. (2011)
HCO1777 Invertebrates mt COI Original Reverse ACTTATATTGTTTATACGAGGGAA n.a. Brown et al. (2012); Verkuil et al. (2022)
ZF2 Invertebrates mt COI Modified from ZBJ-ArtF1C Forward GATATTGGWACHTTWTAYTTTHTHTTYGG 48 °C this study
HC Invertebrates mt COI Modified from HCO1777 Reverse ACTTATATTRTTTATACGAGGGAA 48 °C this study
trnL_g Plants cp tnrL intron Original Forward GGGCAATCCTGAGCCAA 53 °C Taberlet et al. (2007)
trnL_h Plants cp tnrL intron Original Reverse CCATTGAGTCTCTGCACCTATC 53 °C Taberlet et al. (2007)

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