Open Access

Table 1

Studies addressing zoochorus dispersal of zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha, quagga mussel, Dreissena bugensis and Asian clam Corbicula fluminea. The bivalve species examined, method of investigation used, and a summary of findings are identified.

Reference Species Method Summary of findings
Thompson and Sparks (1977) Corbicula fluminea Faecal sample collection Live C. fluminea feed to lesser scaup ducks (Aythya affinis) did not survive gut passage.
Johnson and Carlton (1996) Dreissena polymorpha Faecal sample collection Faecal samples recovered from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), which consumed juvenile mussels or concentrated suspensions of veligers, did not contain any viable specimens.
Gatlin et al. (2013) Corbicula fluminea
Dreissena polymorpha
Faecal sample collection Twelve percent of D. polymorpha and 39 % of C. fluminea consumed in cool water (<21.1 °C) survived gut passage through migratory blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus).
Mack and Andraso (2015) Dreissena bugensis
Dreissena polymorpha
Faecal sample collection No dreissenids survived passage through the gut of round goby (Neogobius melanostomus).
Johnson and Carlton (1996) Dreissena polymorpha Experimental attachment Veligers and juvenile D. polymorpha transported (2.5 m) between ponds by walking mallard ducks, <0.5 mussel per trip.
Banha et al. (2016) Dreissena polymorpha Experimental attachment Larvae of D. polymorpha can adhere and remain attached to a mallard duck carcass during simulated swims (≤0.5 m s−1) and flights (75 km h−1).

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