Fig. 1


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Direct and indirect drivers of biodiversity changes due to human strategy for environmental control and population expansion (i.e. socio-cultural processes). * direct drivers, $ indirect drivers through human production of goods and services (e.g. infrastructure development, industry, transport). Circles for energy sources are proportional to their current degree of use. Line arrows indicate direct links, while dotted arrows indicate feedback effects. Under the proposed scheme two broad interlinked compartments are responsible for climate and biodiversity changes, i.e. the basal energy sources and the global food system. Both should be tackled jointly to avoid failures in proposing soundful solutions for climate, biodiversity and human well-being issues, all the more as even if fossil fuel emissions were stopped immediately, current emission trends in global food systems would likely preclude meeting the Paris Agreement goals (Clark et al., 2020).

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