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Table 1

Overview and definition of functional traits (FTR1 to FTR4, FTRi) in coarse surface sediments and the hyporheic zone, with examples of characteristic oligochaete taxa.

Functional traits FTRs Examples of characteristic taxa
FTR1: Includes active exchange describer (AED) species, i.e. species indicating active hydrologic exchanges between surface waters and groundwater All Lumbriculidae (Trichodrilus spp., Stylodrilus spp., etc.) except Lumbriculus variegatus, Haber spp., Pristina spp., Cernosvitoviella spp., Achaeta spp., Marionina argentea, Haplotaxis gordioides, Propappus volki, Chaetogaster parvus
FTR2: Includes oligochaete species which are intolerant to chemical pollution Cernosvitoviella spp., Marionina argentea, Eiseniella tetraedra, Nais alpina, Vejdovskyella comata, Stylodrilus heringianus, Rhyacodrilus falciformis, Propappus volki, Haplotaxis gordioides
FTR3: Includes oligochaete species which are tolerant to chemical pollution Nais elinguis, Pristina jenkinae, Dero digitata, Globulidrilus riparius, Lumbriculus variegatus
FTR4: Includes oligochaete species which indicate the presence of polluted sludge within sediment interstices (“sludge effect”) Tubificinae with or without hair setae, Lophochaeta ignota, Tubifex tubifex, Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, Bothrioneurum sp., Lumbricillus spp
FTRi: Includes oligochaete species which are moderately tolerant to chemical pollutions Chaetogaster diastrophus, C. diaphanus, Nais communis, N. christinae, N. barbata, N. pardalis, Slavina appendiculata

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