Open Access

Table 1

The role and use of S. woodiana in native and alien range.

Role in freshwater ecosystems Present and future use
1. Accumulation of heavy metals in bodies and shells (Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, As, Zn, Se, Ag, Mo, Cd, Pd) and contaminations e.g. pesticides (Uno et al., 2001; Królak and Zdanowski, 2001; Liu et al., 2010; Zhang et al., 2014; Yancheva et al., 2016) and nutrients (Sinicyna et al., 1997; Królak and Zdanowski, 2007)
2. Filtration and therefore cleaning the water by reducing algae, particles and toxins in the water column (Kurnia et al., 2010)
3. It constitutes a feeding base for: Haematopus ostralegus, Haliaeetus albicilla, Sus scrofa, Vulpes vulpes (Andrzejewski et al., 2012)
4. Mussel deposits are a nutrient rich and easily assimilated food source (Howard and Cuffey, 2006)
5. Ecosystem engineers by physically altering its structure (Bódis et al., 2014a)
6. Living mussels (Vaughn et al., 2008) and empty shells are substrates and shelters for benthic organisms (Bódis et al., 2014b)
1. In China as a traditional edible mussel (Chen et al., 2012)
2. As a unique bioindicators (biomarker) in monitoring (Reichard et al., 2012; Chen et al., 2012; Li et al., 2015)
3. As a toxic Microcystis-blooming controller, phytoplankton controller (Liu et al., 2014) and for assessing the contamination of organotins (Yang et al., 2008), organochlorines (Bian et al., 2009) and heavy metals (Liu et al., 2010)
4. In Tuscany it was introduced specifically for the production of artificial pearls (Berni et al., 2004; Liu et al., 2014)
5. Its liposome-incorporated aqueous extracts can potentially be applied as a natural antitumor and immunomodulator formulation (Liu et al., 2008). It has been recorded as a mollusc medicine in the Dictionary of Chinese Traditional Medicine for the treatment of the diseases of modern civilisation, e.g. diabetes
6. It is sold in garden centres as a “biofilter” for garden ponds (Packet et al., 2009)
7. It is used in monitoring genotoxicity (Woźnicki et al., 2004; Kolarević et al., 2011; Ciparis et al., 2015)

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