Open Access

Table 1

Characteristics of studied springs.

Site Type Depth [m] Distance [m] Surroundings Permanence Bottom Vegetation
Z1/1 limnocrene 0.5 10 alder carr permanent silt, leaves
Z1/2 limnocrene 0.4 permanent silt Carex acutiformis
Z1/3 helocrene 0.1 permanent silt, leaves
Z1/4 helorheocrene 0.05 temporary leaves Cardamine amara

Z2/1 rheocrene 0.1 20 alder carr, willow thickets permanent sand, silt, leaves
Z2/2 helocrene 0.01–0.02 silt, leaves sedges, mosses
Z2/3 helolimnocrene 0.01–0.02 silt, leaves sedges, Cardamine amara
Z2/4 helolimnocrene 0.01–0.02 leaves sedges, Cardamine amara

Z3/1 rheocrene 0.02 50 arable field, oak-hornbeam stands permanent sand, gravel, leaves, twigs
Z3/2 helocrene 0.02 50 silt, leaves
Z3/3 hypocrene 0.02 50 sandy-silty
Z3/4 helolimnocrene 0.02 3 silt, leaves Cardamine amara
Z3/5 helocrene 0.01 50 silt, leaves
Z3/6 helocrene 0.01 3 sand, silt

Z4/1 helocrene 0.01–0.02 70 alluvial forests with Alnus glutinosa permanent silt, leaves sedges
and Fraxinus excelsior
Z4/2 helolimnocrene 0.02 3 Typha latifolia, Carex acutiformis

Z5/1 helorheocrene 0.05 15 oak-hornbeam stands permanent gravelly-silty
Z5/2 hypocrene 0.01 10 permanent stones
Z5/3 helocrene 0.03 20 permanent gravelly-silty
Z5/4 rheocrene 0.02 10 permanent sandy-silty, leaves
Z5/5 limnohelocrene 0.05 3 temporary silt, leaves grasses

Z6/1 helocrene 0.01 3 alder carr permanent silt, leaves sedges, Cardamine amara
Z6/2 helolimnocrene 0.05 10 silt, leaves sedges
Z6/3 limnocrene 0.1 2 silt, leaves sedges
Z6/4 limnocrene 0.2 3 leaves Carex acutiformis, Petasites sp.

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