Open Access
Knowl. Managt. Aquatic Ecosyst.
Number 403, 2011
Article Number 11
Number of page(s) 18
Published online 28 October 2011
  • Arlinghaus R. and Cooke S.J., 2009. Recreational fisheries: socio-economic importance, conservation issues and management challenges. In: Dickson B., Hutton J. and Adams B. (eds.), Recreational hunting, conservation and rural livelihoods: Science and practice, Wiley-Blackwell, London, 39–58.
  • Arlinghaus R. and Mehner T., 2004. A management-orientated comparative analysis of urban and rural anglers living in a metropolis. Environ. Manage., 33, 331–344. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Arlinghaus R., Mehner T. and Cowx I.G., 2002. Reconciling traditional inland fisheries management and sustainability in industrialized countries, with emphasis on Europe. Fish Fish., 3, 261–316. [CrossRef]
  • Arlinghaus R., Cooke S.J., Lyman J., Polikanscy D., Schwab A., Suski C.D., Sutton S.G. and Thorstad E.B., 2007. Understanding the complexity of catch-and-release in recreational fishing: An integrative synthesis of global knowledge from historical, ethical, social, and biological perspectives. Rev. Fish. Sci., 15, 75–167. [CrossRef]
  • Arlinghaus R., Klefoth T., Gingerich A.J., Donaldson M.R., Hanson K.C. and Cooke S.J., 2008a. Behaviour and survival of pike, Esox lucius, with a retained lure in the lower jaw. Fish. Manage. Ecol., 15, 459–466. [CrossRef]
  • Arlinghaus R., Klefoth T., Kobler A. and Cooke S.J., 2008b. Size selectivity, injury, handling time, and determinants of initial hooking mortality in recreational angling for northern pike: the influence of type and size of bait. N. Am. J. Fish. Manage., 28, 123–134. [CrossRef]
  • Arlinghaus R., Klefoth T., Cooke S.J., Gingerich A. and Suski C.D., 2009. Physiological and behavioural consequences of catch-and-release angling on northern pike (Esox lucius L.). Fish. Res., 95, 223–233. [CrossRef]
  • Barton B.A., Schreck C.B. and Sigismondi L.A., 1986. Multiple acute disturbances evoke cumulative physiological stress responses in juvenile chinook salmon. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc., 115, 245–251. [CrossRef]
  • Beale C.M. and Monaghan P., 2004. Human disturbance: people as predation-free predators? J. Appl. Ecol., 41, 335–343. [CrossRef]
  • Beukema J.J., 1970. Acquired hook-avoidance in the pike Esox lucius L. fished with artificial and natural baits. J. Fish Biol., 2, 155–160. [CrossRef]
  • Beyerle G.B., 1978. Survival, growth, and vulnerability to angling of northern pike and walleyes stocked as fingerlings in small lakes with bluegills or minnows. Am. Fish. Soc. Special Pub., 11, 135–139.
  • Casselman J.M., 1974. External sex determination of northern pike, Esox lucius Linnaeus. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc., 103, 343–347. [CrossRef]
  • Casselman J.M., 1990. Growth and relative size of calcified structures of fish. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc., 119, 673–688. [CrossRef]
  • Cooke S.J. and Cowx I.G., 2004. The role of recreational fishing in global fish crisis. Bioscience, 54, 857–859. [CrossRef]
  • Cooke S.J. and Philipp D.P., 2004. Behavior and mortality of caught-and-released bonefish (Albula spp.) in Bahamian waters with implications for a sustainable recreational fishery. Biol. Conserv., 118, 599–607. [CrossRef]
  • Cooke S.J., Philipp D.P., Schreer J.F. and McKinley R.S., 2000. Locomotory impairment of nesting male largemouth bass following catch-and-release angling. N. Am. J. Fish. Manage., 20, 968–977. [CrossRef]
  • Cooke S.J., Schreer J.F., Dunmal K.M. and Philipp D.P., 2002. Strategies for quantifying sublethal effects of marine catch-and-release angling: Insights from novel freshwater applications. Am. Fish. Soc. Symp., 30, 121–134.
  • Donaldson M.R., Arlinghaus R., Hanson K.C. and Cooke S.J., 2008. Enhancing catch-and-release science with biotelemetry. Fish Fish., 9, 79–105. [CrossRef]
  • Edeline E., Carlson S.M., Stige L.C., Winfield I.J., Fletcher J.M., James J.B., Haugen T.O., Vøllestad L.A. and Stenseth N.C., 2007. Trait changes in a harvested population are driven by a dynamic tug-of-war between natural and harvest selection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104, 15799–15804. [CrossRef]
  • Edeline E., Haugen T.O., Weltzien F.A., Claessen D., Winfield I.J., Stenseth N.C. and Vøllestad L.A., 2010. Body downsizing caused by non-consumptive social stress severely depresses population growth rate. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B, 277, 843–851. [CrossRef]
  • Francis R.I.C.C., 1990. Back calculation of fish length: a critical review. J. Fish Biol., 36, 883–902. [CrossRef]
  • Frid A. and Dill L.M.. 2002. Human-caused disturbance stimuli as a form of predation risk. Conserv. Ecol., 6, 11.
  • Gill J.A., Norris K. and Sutherland W.J., 2001. The effects of disturbance on habitat use by black-tailed godwits Limosa limosa. J. Appl. Ecol., 38, 846–856. [CrossRef]
  • Graham A.L. and Cooke S.J., 2008. The effects of noise disturbance from various recreational boating activities common to inland waters on the cardiac physiology of a freshwater fish, the largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Aquat. Conserv. Mar. Freshw. Ecosyst., 18, 1315–1324. [CrossRef]
  • Gustaveson A.W., Wydoski R.S. and Wedemeyer G.A., 1991. Physiological response of largemouth bass to angling stress. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc., 120, 629–636. [CrossRef]
  • Hugie D.M. and Dill L.M., 1994. Fish and game: a game theoretic approach to habitat selection by predators and prey. J. Fish Biol., 45, 151–169.
  • Jepsen N. and Aarestrup K., 1999. A comparison of the growth of radio-tagged and dye-marked pike. J. Fish Biol., 55, 880–883. [CrossRef]
  • Kempinger J.J. and Carline R.F., 1978. Dynamics of the northern pike population and changes that occured with a minimum size limit in Escanaba lake, Wisconsin. Am. Fish. Soc. Special Pub., 11, 382–389.
  • Kieffer J.D., 2000. Limits to exhaustive exercise in fish. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., A: Mol. Integr. Physiol., 126, 161–179. [CrossRef]
  • Klefoth T., Kobler A. and Arlinghaus R., 2008. The impact of catch-and-release angling on short-term behaviour and habitat choice of northern pike (Esox lucius L.). Hydrobiologia, 601, 99–110. [CrossRef]
  • Kobler A., Klefoth T., Wolter C., Fredrich F. and Arlinghaus R., 2008a. Contrasting pike (Esox lucius L.) movement and habitat choice between summer and winter in a small lake. Hydrobiologia, 601, 17–27. [CrossRef]
  • Kobler A., Klefoth T. and Arlinghaus R., 2008b. Side-fidelity and seasonal changes in activity centre size of female pike Esox lucius L. in a small lake. J. Fish Biol., 73, 1–13. [CrossRef]
  • Kobler A., Klefoth T., Mehner T. and Arlinghaus R., 2009. Coexistence of behavioural types in an aquatic top predator: a response to resource limitation? Oecologia, 161, 837–847. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Kuparinen A., Klefoth T. and Arlinghaus R., 2010. Abiotic and fishing-related correlates of angling catch rates in pike (Esox lucius). Fish. Res., 105, 111–117. [CrossRef]
  • Lewin W.C., Arlinghaus R. and Mehner T., 2006. Documented and potential biological impacts of recreational fishing: Insights for management and conservation. Rev. Fish. Sci., 14, 305–367. [CrossRef]
  • Lima S.L. and Dill L.M., 1990. Behavioral decision made under the risk of predation: a review and prospectus. Can. J. Zool., 68, 619–640. [CrossRef]
  • Madsen J. and Fox A.D., 1995. Impacts of hunting disturbance on waterbirds – a review. Wildl. Biol., 1, 193–207.
  • Manly B.F.J., McDonald L.L. and Thomas D.L., 1993. Resource selection by animals: statistical design and analysis for field studies, Chapman & Hall, London, 190 p.
  • Meka J.M. and Margraf F.J., 2007. Using a bioenergetic model to assess growth reduction from catch-and-release fishing and hooking injury in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fish. Manage. Ecol., 14, 131–139. [CrossRef]
  • Mitson R.B. and Knudsen H.P., 2003. Causes and effects of underwater noise on fish abundance estimation. Aquat. Living Resour., 16, 255–263. [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences]
  • Muoneke M.I. and Childress W.M., 1994. Hooking mortality: a review for recreational fisheries. Rev. Fish. Sci., 2, 123–156. [CrossRef]
  • Ostrand K.G., Cooke S.J. and Wahl D.H., 2004. Effects of stress on largemouth bass reproduction. N. Am. J. Fish. Manage., 24, 1038–1045. [CrossRef]
  • Paukert C.P., Klammer J.A., Pierce R.B. and Simonson T.D., 2001. An overview of northern pike regulations in North America. Fisheries, 26, 6–13. [CrossRef]
  • Pickering A.D. and Pottinger T.G., 1989. Stress responses and disease resistance in salmonid fish: effects of chronic elevation of plasma cortisol. Fish Physiol. Biochem., 7, 253–258. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Pierce R.B., Tomcko C.M. and Schupp D.H., 1995. Exploitation of northern pike in seven small north-central Minnesota lakes. N. Am. J. Fish. Manage., 15, 601–609. [CrossRef]
  • Quattro J.M. and Vrijenhoek R.C., 1989. Fitness differences among remnant populations of the endangered sonoran topminnow. Science, 245, 976–978. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Raat A.J.P., 1988. Synopsis of biological data on the northern pike Esox lucius Linnaeus, 1758., FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 30 Rev. 2nd edition, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
  • Ricker W.E., 1975. Computation and interpretation of biological statistics of fish populations. Bull. Fish. Res. Board Can., 191, 1–382.
  • Rogers K.B., 2002. FishTel: telemetry analysis package, Version 1.4. Colorado Division of Wildlife (available:; February 2011).
  • Rogers K.B. and White G.C., 2007. Analysis of movement and habitat use from telemetry data. In: Guy C.S. and Brown M.L. (eds.), Analysis and interpretation of freshwater fisheries data, American Fisheries Society, Bethasda, Maryland, 625–676.
  • Schwalme K. and Mackay W.C., 1985. The influence of exercise-handling stress on blood lactate, acid-base, and plasma glucose status of northern pike (Esox lucius L.). Can. J. Zool., 63, 1125–1129. [CrossRef]
  • Siepker M.J., Ostrand K.G. and Wahl D.H., 2006. Effects of angling on feeding by largemouth bass. J. Fish Biol., 69, 783–793. [CrossRef]
  • Siepker M.J., Cooke S.J., Wahl D.H. and Philipp D.P., 2009. Individual reproductive success of largemouth bass and smallmouth bass subjected to different components of competitive angling events. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc., 138, 818–825. [CrossRef]
  • Sih A., Bell A. and Johnson J.C., 2004. Behavioral syndromes: an ecological and evolutionary overview. Trends Ecol. Evol., 19, 372–378. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Smith M.E., Kane A.S. and Popper A.N., 2004. Noise-induced stress response and hearing loss in goldfish (Carassius carassius). J. Exp. Biol., 207, 427–435. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Thompson L.A., Cooke S.J., Donaldson M.R., Hanson K.C., Gingerich A.J., Klefoth T. and Arlinghaus R., 2008. Physiology, Behavior, and survival of angled and air-exposed largemouth bass. N. Am. J. Fish. Manage., 28, 1059–1068. [CrossRef]
  • Vabø R., Olsen K. and Huse I., 2002. The effect of vessel avoidance of wintering Norwegian spring spawning herring. Fish. Res., 58, 59–77. [CrossRef]
  • Werner E.E., 1992. Individual behavior and high-order species interactions. Am. Nat., 140, S5–S32. [CrossRef]
  • Werner E.E. and Hall D.J., 1988. Ontogenetic habitat shifts in bluegill: the foraging rate-predation risk trade-off. Ecology, 69, 1352–1366. [CrossRef]
  • White A.J., Schreer J.F. and Cooke S.J., 2008. Behavioral and physiological responses of the congeneric largemouth (Micropterus salmoides) and smallmouth bass (M. dolomieu) to various exercise and air exposure durations. Fish. Res., 89, 9–16. [CrossRef]
  • Wilde G.R. and Sawynok W., 2009. Effect of hook removal on recapture rates of 27 species of angler-caught fish in Australia. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc., 138, 692–697. [CrossRef]
  • Wilde G.R., Pope K.L. and Strauss R.E., 2003. Estimation of fishing mortality and its sampling variance. N. Am. J. Fish. Manage., 23, 779–786. [CrossRef]
  • Wright R.M. and Shoesmith E.A., 1988. The reproductive success of pike, Esox lucius, aspects of fecundity, egg density and survival. J. Fish Biol., 33, 623–636. [CrossRef]
  • Wysocki L.E., Dittami J.P. and Ladich F., 2006. Ship noise and cortisol secretion in European freshwater fishes. Biol. Conserv., 128, 501–508. [CrossRef]